This course complies with the legislative content and mandates of AB382, SB230 and PC835a.

Force Encounters Analysis is a dynamic and practical participant-centered course, based on the latest, unbiased scientific evidence about officer-involved use of force. Our curriculum is a valuable resource for officers, investigators, agencies, DAs and even community leaders.  We assist LE professionals in applying ground-breaking concepts revealed in human performance research when engaging in force encounters, AND when investigating, reconstructing, recalling or otherwise analyzing a UOF incident.  We go far beyond mere evidence-based training to true, university-level human performance education, derived from 100+ years of science and research.  An now, you may receive college credit for attendance at select locations.

HPTI, Inc. coursework provides the means for law enforcement professionals to expand their capabilities in decreasing agency liability through pre-incident risk management and post-incident forensic findings. Our training has been directly credited with saving officer lives on the street, and preventing officers from being unjustly convicted of criminal excessive use of forceYou can expect tangible results such as:

  • enhanced officer safety, 
  • increased decision-making skills under pressure, 
  • unbiased force investigations,
  • better outcomes at critical press conferences and media events.

Increased attacks on law enforcement, strained community-police relations, terrorism, violent extremism, advancing technology, police reform, de-escalation, increased calls for service outside of the traditional norms of duty – these are just a few of the challenges our profession is contending with.  We are facing the most challenging time in policing history, where the actions of the entire profession are being called into question and we are having to defend our policies and practices, as well as the actions of our fellow officers.


There is arguably no single event that can traumatize an officer, agency, and city or county more than an officer-involved shooting.  The intense scrutiny and criticism generated by the media, community activists, the public, and the criminal justice system can be devastating on multiple levels.  Civil judgments resulting from such cases can debilitate an organization for years, contribute to the erosion of employee morale, and hamper agency effectiveness through the loss of public confidence.  It is, therefore, imperative that leadership prepare their officers and investigators in earnest for this eventuality.  It is also essential that the leadership team supervising a use-of-force investigation become equally prepared.


Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386 (1989) provides an evaluative standard for use of force which dictates (in part) force will be judged based on the perception of an objectively reasonable officer given the totality of the circumstances. Human Factors science provides vital information* concerning the capabilities and limitations of human beings in environments which are tense, uncertain, and rapidly evolving. Join us in understanding just – WHAT IS REASONABLE?

*Reaction time, Perception & Attention, Biomechanics, Memory, Video interpretation, Decision-Making and much, much more…

Force Encounters Analysis covers the science of human dynamics during a high-stress encounter, and trains you to apply multiple human factor principles to any high stress or use of force situation, whether you’re involved in, investigating, prosecuting or defending the incident.

We will expand your knowledge of clear-cut, scientific evidence to include bio-mechanical (physical) and cognitive (psychological) phenomena associated with human behavior, we will demonstrate how it can impact performance under stress, and then we will strengthen your analytical skills.  Guaranteed.

Target Audience:

Sworn, SWAT, Force Investigators, Military Personnel, Managers and Supervisors, Use-of-Force Trainers, Critical Incident Teams, police psychologists, Internal Affairs, city attorneys, POA Reps, Civilian Review Board members, Oversight Committees, Field Force Incident Teams, Terrorist Incident Response Trainers, Department of Homeland Security personnel.

Prerequisites – None

Course Length – 24 hours



  • De-escalation:  It’s more about you than them.  The science is clear – stress goes up, cognitive skills go down.
  • The Dangers of Fatigue:  All the latest on microsleeps, shift schedule pitfalls, and more.
  • Seeing isn’t always believing or vice versa:  All you need to know about inattention blindness, change blindness, and other perceptual distortions, with real world application.
  • Error Management:  The buck stops here … or does it?  Accident and error mitigation strategies you can really use.
  • How do we close the gap between public perception and the truth of a UOF encounter?
  • What drives officer perception and why might it be different for officers on the same scene?
  • Action/Reaction science that may save your life or prevent unjust prosecution.
  • Scientific evidence providing reasonableness to the number of rounds fire during an OIS.
  • Were rounds in a suspect’s back reasonable based upon current science?
  • The science-backed reasons that our memory may conflict with forensic evidence.
  • And many other investigative techniques to assist in analyzing factors that are often overlooked in UOF investigations to include:  Body camera & video evidence, methods of decision-making and much, much more.


  • Understand how agencies can close the gap between law enforcement and the public on OIS/UOF issues.
  • Apply the concepts of error management to a case study to determine the level of culpability.
  • Predict the physiological, perceptual, and cognitive factors that affect performance under varying levels of stress in a use of force or OIS.
  • Predict the level of impairment due to fatigue caused by sleep loss and hours of wakefulness.
  • Understand the differences between quick reactive decision making and analytical decision making – focusing on the benefits of both.
  • Compute the reaction time for officers and suspects.
  • Explain how memory is acquired, stored, and recalled.
  • Practical application of objectives to a real-world case study proving understanding of the material. Inclusive of video review, action/reaction considerations, perceptual issues, and frame by frame video analysis.

   **Attendees are also introduced to CTI’s Media Kit, which assists agencies in “getting out in front” of a critical use of force incident.

Department of Homeland Security Certified* Catalog ID:  CA-058-RESP https://www.firstrespondertraining.gov/frt/  *This course is eligible for use of Homeland Security Grant Programs to cover the cost of registration, travel, lodging, per-diem, and overtime.  For more information on how to apply for grant funds, please contact your state HLS training officer: http://www.dhs.gov/state-homeland-security-and-emergency-services  

CA POST Certified: 1095-22419-xxxxx         CO POST Certified:  UF003      STC/BSCC Certified: 8803-072505

Open-Enrollment Sessions are 24 hours/3 days, currently scheduled in CA, WA, TX, CO, AZ, NM and MN.  In-house sessions available Nationwide.  

Tuition rates: $375 in CA.  $425 to $500 in all other states.

Instructor Cadre:
Internationally renowned Human Factors Expert Craig E. Geis, (LTC US Army, ret.) MBA, MA, is Co-Founder and Director of Curriculum Development and Training at Human Performance Training Institute, Inc. (formerly California Training Institute). LTC. Geis served as the US Army’s Lead Safety Specialist in Aviation Human Factors and as a psychology instructor at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.  He also held the position of Director of Evaluation for The Army Organizational Effectiveness School and Center (OECS). He continues to train our military’s Special Operations Aviation Units to this day. As a career Army pilot, Craig developed the military’s Crew Resource Management (CRM) training program to address human error. Craig has also served as an Associate Professor at USC, at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, and at the University of Maryland, and the University of San Francisco, providing instruction on Safety Management and Human Factors. Mr. Geis holds an M.A. in Psychology from Austin Peay State University, an MBA in Management from Georgia Southern College, and a B.A. in Management from C.W. Post College in New York. He is also a certified Force Science Analyst and has published countless articles and papers on the subjects of risk and safety management and human performance.

Certified Force Science Analyst, James Schnabl, M.P.A. has over 33 years of law enforcement experience.  He served as retired as a Deputy Chief for the Santa Ana Police Department, where he commanded the Administration and Support Bureau including the Department’s Training Division.  His previous command experience includes Special Weapons and Tactics (S.W.A.T.), Field Operations and Investigations.  Additionally, he was the Commander of a multiagency task force, the Regional Narcotics Suppression Program (RNSP). As an officer, detective, and sergeant, Jim has held positions in Directed Patrol, Field Training, S.W.A.T., Narcotics and Crimes Against Persons (CAP). During his ten years as a narcotics investigator, Jim worked for six years undercover and flew surveillance aircraft for an additional 4 years, logging over 1,800 flight hours.  He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Public Administration from the University of La Verne and a Master of Arts degree in Public Policy and Administration from California State University, Long Beach. He is a graduate of the Sherman Block Supervisory Leadership Institute (SLI Class 209), the California Peace Officers Standards in Training (P.O.S.T.) Command College (Class 49) and the FBI National Academy (Class 254).  Jim’s Command College article, Reinventing the Police Report for the 21st Century: Are Video Police Reports the Answer? was published in Police Chief Magazine (September 2012).

Douglas McGeachy, D.P.A. is a Certified Force Science Analyst and has over 25 years of law enforcement experience. He recently retired as a Deputy Chief for the Santa Ana Police Department where he commanded the Investigations Bureau and the Administration and Support Bureau. He previously served as Deputy Chief of the Field Operations Bureau where he oversaw the Department’s largest and most visible command of police officers.

Doug has command level experience in the Training, Traffic, and Patrol Divisions as well as the Special Weapons and Tactics (S.W.A.T.) Team. Deputy Chief McGeachy is a recipient of the Santa Ana Police Department’s Medal of Valor and Purple Heart as well as the Award of Valor from the California Peace Officers Association.

In addition to his work with the California Training Institute, Doug also holds adjunct teaching positions at the Riverside County Sheriff’s Academy and the Golden West College S.W.A.T. Academy. Deputy Chief McGeachy holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Political Science with an emphasis in Public Administration from California Baptist University, a Master of Public Administration degree from the University of La Verne, and a Doctor of Public Administration from the University of La Verne. His dissertation titled, Managing Risk in Local Law Enforcement: Leadership Perspectives on Policy, Training, Performance, and Communication focused on law enforcement risk management efforts at the operational level.

Doug served in the United States Marine Corps for six years and has seven years of experience as a volunteer firefighter and emergency medical technician.